In sound recording and reproduction, audio mixing or mixdown is the process by which multiple recorded sounds are combined into one or more channels, for instance 2-channel stereo. In the process, the source signals’ level, frequency content, dynamics, and panoramic position are manipulated and effects such as reverb may be added. This practical, aesthetic, or otherwise creative treatment is done in order to produce a mix that is more appealing to listeners. Audio mixing is done in studios as part of creating an album or single. The mixing stage often follows a multitrack recording. The process is generally carried out by a mixing engineer, though sometimes it is the musical producer, or even the artist, who mixes the recorded material. After mixing, a mastering engineer prepares the final product for reproduction on a CD, for radio, or otherwise. Prior to the emergence of digital audio workstations (DAWs), the process of mixing used to be carried out on a mixing console. Currently, more and more engineers and independent artists are using a personal computer for the process. Mixing consoles still play a large part in the recording process. They are often used in conjunction with a DAW, although the DAW may only be used as a multitrack recorder and for editing or sequencing, with the actual mixing being performed on the console.